To Top

Another one bites the dust!

It would not be an exaggeration to say that creatine is one of the most popular and effective sports supplements. Studies show that about 70% of those who use creatine supplements obtain definite ergogenic benefits, including increased body mass, strength, and upgraded muscle endurance. Most of the published studies attesting to creatine efficacy have involved creatine monohydrate, which is composed of 99% creatine and 1% water.While forms of creatine were routinely used by Russian and East German athletes in the 60s, the use of creatine as a popular sports supplement began in 1993. The ongoing popularity of creatine has led to a variety of supplemental forms of creatine. Some creatine supplements contain simple sugars, based on studies showing that promoting an insulin release boosts muscle uptake of creatine. In actuality, the efficiency of muscle creatine uptake is dependent on the creatine transporter protein found in muscle. With continued use of creatine, this muscle transporter eventually downgrades, and when that happens, most of the ingested supplemental creatine is rapidly converted into the creatine metabolic byproduct, namely creatinine. Creatinine, however, provides no ergogenic effects, although it does provide a minor antioxidant effect. In recent years, many ads for various creatine products suggest that creatine monohydrate is difficult for the body to absorb. Other ads suggest that the harsh acidic enviroment of the stomach rapidly degrades creatine into creatinine. In fact, several good studies show that creatine is completely absorbed into the gastrointestinal tract. The conversion of creatine into creatinine is negligible, contrary to some ad claims. In fact, the availability of creatine in the blood after oral ingestion approaches 100% of the dose, and you can’t get much better than that. Then why do so many products claim to be vastly superior to plain old creatine monohydrate (CM)?

Creatine is not very water soluble, and also doesn’t easily penetrate cellular membranes. Based on these known characteristics of creatine, a few creatine supplemental variants have emerged with the goal of overcoming these creatine barriers. One in particular, creatine ethyl ester (CEE) even makes the formidable claim that it bypasses the creatine transport protein limitation. It allegedly does this because the ethyl part of CEE is alcohol, which is known to easily penetrate fatty cell membranes. The theory behind CEE is that the ester protects it against premature degradation in the gut, while also speeding uptake into muscle. As such, you would need to ingest far less creatine, and the amount you do ingest would increase muscle uptake considerably. According to CEE advocates, enzymes in the gut called esterases remove creatine from its ester, thereby producing free and active creatine. But the proof for this supposed enhanced creatine uptake with CEE had little or no evidence to back up the many grandiose ad claims about CEE, such as that it provided 400% or more better uptake compared to CM. Some recent studies have tested CEE and compared it to CM. The results are not going to make those who sell CEE too happy.

For example, one study, published in Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, featured 30 untrained men, divided into placebo, CM, and CEE groups. The study, which lasted for seven weeks, had the men in the creatine groups ingest 20 grams a day for 5 days, followed by 5 grams a day for 42 days. Throughout the course of the study, all the subjects trained with weights on a 4-day split routine. The results showed high blood levels of creatine in the placebo and CM groups compared to the CEE group. On the other hand, blood levels of creatinine was higher in the CEE group compared to the other groups. Both creatine groups showed higher muscle levels of creatine compared to the placebo group, but there wasn’t any significant difference between the creatine groups in this regard. While ad claims for CEE suggest that this form of creatine results in less extracellular water retention, this study showed that CEE, in fact, produced the highest level of extracellular water retention. The main conclusion of the study was that not only wasn’t CEE superior to CM, but most of ingested CEE appears to rapidly degrade into creatinine.

Another recent study, published in the International Journal of Sports Medicine tested the notion that intestinal esterase enzymes cleave the ester off of CEE, thereby liberating the creatine portion for use in muscle uptake. The study found that the esterase enzymes did not convert CEE into active creatine to any significant degree. Instead, nearly all of the creatine took a direct route into relatively useless creatinine. All of this information should not be surprising. CEE was initially formulated in the 1920s. A 1955 study found that CEE was too inherently unstable to be of any practical use. Which begs the question: Why was CEE introduced to the sports supplement market?  The answer is that the mechanism for the higher efficacy of CEE seemed initially plausible–but untested. A darker motivation for some was unabashed greed. The bottom line, however, is that all forms of supplemental CEE are considerably more expensive than CM, yet paradoxically is far less effective for its intended purpose. Perhaps it’s time to relegate CEE to the list of ineffectual  supplements that appeared promising but proved to be a bust. In that sense, CEE has plenty of company, with such notable past failures as boron to boost testosterone, HMB, and numerous others.

For more information about creatine and various other sports supplements, check out my e-book,Natural Anabolics. Information is available at:


Spillane, M, et al. The effects of creatine ethyl ester supplementation combined with heavy resistance training on body composition, muscle performance, and serum and muscle creatine levels.J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2009;6:6

Giese MW, et al. Qualitative in vitro NMR analysis of creatine ethyl ester pronutrient in human plasma.Int J Sports Med 2009: in press.

Learn the truth about anabolic supplements in my e-book, Natural Anabolics, available at

Anabolic Stack - Gains In Bulk


  1. Andrew Ruff

    August 2, 2009 at 4:55 pm

    Hello Jerry:

    Ysterday I read your article “Myostatin update” You write:
    The newer follistatin supplements are derived from eggs, and there is zero proof that they’re any more effective then the seaweed-based versions.”

    I read this not more then 5 minutes after finishing a lengthy aricle by Carlton M. Colker, M.D., FACN in the new Prosource catalog. Dr. Carlton explains the reasearch and clinical trial involving the supplement he developed called Myo-T12. The clincial study, done on humans, shows a 46% reduction in myostatin production with a signle serving.

    The Prosource catalog is of course widely available, and I would greatly appreciate your reading thru the entire article and then giving Iron Man readers your feedback. At this point I can truthfully say that for myself, in just 3 words:

    I Am Confused!


    Andrew Ruff

  2. Jerry Brainum

    August 2, 2009 at 7:41 pm

    The study by Colker was not an independent study. In fact, Colker either has a financial interest in this company, or he was paid off.It’s easy to manipulate studies. I know that follastatin is a protein, and there is no evidence whatsoever, other than Colker’s biased study, that this product works. When and if an independent study is published showing that this product works, I will amend my comments accordingly. Until then, my previous comments stand.

  3. Danto as great as 40%

    August 10, 2009 at 10:29 pm

    Do your homework on CEE. I suggest you look up Dr Johnathan Vennestrom’s patent on CEE and you will find out that there is significant degradation of CEE into creatinine in manufacturing. Depending on on the lenght of time, temperature in the reactor, and pressure, there can be as little as 13% to as much as 40% creatinine in the finished goods. This is something that can’t be avoided and the end result is every cee product on the market has creatinine in it. A simple assay of any product will reveal this

    Feel free to contact one of the manufacturers who made most of the CEE back in 2003 and he can verify those numbers. Viroe Systems of Mdison TN,
    speak to Mark Faulkner.

    A recent creatine uptake study performed at Nebraska Medical Center and Manitoba was presented at this years ISSN conference, the study revealed how poor cee was in uptake, how CM faired and how superior the CON-CRET molecule surpassed all creatines.

  4. Muscle Mass

    September 8, 2009 at 9:59 am

    “For example, one study, published in Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition”. That’s the study they use on the Gaspari Nutrition ads. Of course they are going to have a study like every other manufacturer out there that claims there creatine is the best.

  5. Alison

    December 5, 2009 at 2:33 pm

    Given that muscle absorption of CM is so high, do you see any additional benefit to be gained by kre-alkalyne?

  6. Jerry Brainum

    December 5, 2009 at 8:02 pm

    Studies that specifically compared the Kre-alkyline product to creatine monohydrate showed that CM is a more effective supplement. In fact, Kre-alkylin breaks down into useless creatinine nearly as fast as creatine ester. The entire notion that CM is difficult to absorb is just nonsense, since it’s 99% absorbable orally.

  7. Alison

    December 7, 2009 at 10:03 pm

    Thank you for answering my question so quickly!

  8. kre-alkalyn

    December 10, 2009 at 12:39 pm

    kre alkalyn Kre-Alkalyn is the top most creatine supplement on the market. It does work, sharing my experience..

You must be logged in to post a comment Login

Leave a Reply

More in Blog Post

  • Get A Good Workout with Mike Rashid

    Muscle sensation Mike Rashid, whose motto is “Train Your Mind as Hard as You Train Your Body,” explains his shoulder massifier step...

    Cindy MamJuly 16, 2018
  • Why Your Big Toe Is Your Key To Great Calves!

    If you’re looking to really build your calves, this one little piece of advice will help tremendously. Yet you rarely, if...

    Nick NilssonApril 6, 2016
  • Create Big-Ass Shoulders With Mike Rashid

    His motto “Train Your Mind as Hard as You Train Your Body,” may test your muscles and your mind.

    Iron Man MagazineMarch 21, 2016
  • The Workout and Happiness

    Happy New Year—a perennial cliché!  Can anything or anybody make you happy? To paraphrase a well-known line from Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar,...

    John BalikFebruary 11, 2015
  • New Year Resolutions

    January first, the birth of a new year.  Time to reflect on the old and plan for the new! Historically, January...

    John BalikJanuary 15, 2015
  • Do You Know Squat ?

    Have you heard any of the following recommendations? “Don’t let your knees go over your toes when you squat, because it’s...

    Doug BrignoleDecember 30, 2014
  • Another Rewarding Olympia Weekend

    A couple of weeks ago I was at the Mr. Olympia competition, the 50th rendition of that iconic event. What started...

    John BalikDecember 15, 2014
  • Muscle Beach Breakfast Club

    I have been a part of Muscle Beach Venice since competing there in the mid ’60s. Much has changed in the...

    John BalikNovember 15, 2014
  • The Science Behind My 2 Week Body Transformation into a Mythological Minotaur

    Sometimes getting in shape can mean perfect timing.  In order to make a 2 week body transformation, science can play a...

    curtis.fisherNovember 14, 2014